Coding, decoding, encoding

Coding or encoding consists in transforming some data in a specific format, usually to facilitate a specific use. For example, the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) offers rules to transform a text in a format which facilitates the identification of semantic forms (such as verbs and nouns) in this text.
Decoding is the reverse operation: taking some data in a specific format and reverting the data to a different format or its original state.